Faculty & Research

John Gallemore

John Gallemore

Assistant Professor of Accounting

John D. Gallemore studies corporate taxation, financial reporting, financial institutions, and regulation and regulators. His papers have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Accounting & Economics and Contemporary Accounting Research.

His recent research explores how corporate taxation affects financial institutions. Specifically, he has studied how corporate tax system characteristics affect bank financial reporting transparency and other choices, and how corporate tax enforcement aimed at small-and-medium-sized firms affects banks’ corporate lending. He has also explored the determinants and consequences of corporate tax planning, and the interaction between bank financial reporting and regulator supervision.

Gallemore earned his Ph.D. in accounting from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Additionally, he holds a Master's in Business Administration (where he finished first in his class), a B.S. in Business Administration, and a B.A. in Political Science, all from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Outside of research and teaching, Gallemore enjoys playing and watching sports, reading, traveling, and spending time with his wife and daughters.


2018 - 2019 Course Schedule

Number Title Quarter
30001 Cost Analysis and Internal Controls 2019 (Winter)

REVISION: Corporate Tax Enforcement Externalities and the Banking Sector
Date Posted: Apr  12, 2019
We explore whether corporate tax enforcement can affect banks via their corporate lending. Specifically, we hypothesize that tax enforcement efforts aimed at small and midsized enterprises (SME) can improve their governance and information environments, which in turn could lead to greater commercial lending to such borrowers. Exploiting the regional structure employed by the IRS between 1992 and 1999 as well as the IRS reorganization in 2000, we find that the corporate tax return audit probability for SMEs is associated with greater commercial lending growth for regionally focused banks. Furthermore, we show that tax enforcement is associated with greater employment by SMEs in counties exposed to higher bank commercial lending. Our findings are consistent with the tax authority’s mandate having important externalities on the banking sector via the latter’s commercial lending, and suggest that the benefits to tax enforcement go beyond simply improving tax collection.

REVISION: Banks as Tax Planning Intermediaries
Date Posted: Mar  02, 2019
We provide the first large-scale empirical evidence of banks functioning as tax planning intermediaries. We posit that some banks specialize in assisting corporate clients with tax planning. In this role, banks make use of their centrality in financial relationships; access to private information; and ability to structure, execute, and participate in tax planning transactions for clients. We measure bank-client relationships using loan contracts and measure client tax planning using either the cash effective tax rate or the unrecognized tax benefit balance. Using a difference-in-differences design, we find that firms experience meaningful tax reductions when they begin a relationship with a bank whose existing clients engage in above-median tax planning. The effects of pairing with such tax intermediary banks are concentrated in relationships with larger or longer maturity loans, clients with foreign income or greater credit risk, and when the bank is an industry specialist or has ...

REVISION: Bank Financial Reporting Opacity and Regulatory Intervention
Date Posted: Feb  25, 2019
I study the association between bank financial reporting opacity, measured by delayed expected loan loss recognition, and the intervention decisions made by bank regulators. Examining U.S. commercial banks during the 2007-2009 financial crisis, I find that delayed expected loan loss recognition is negatively associated with the likelihood of regulatory intervention (measured by either severe enforcement action or closure). This result is robust to using an extensive set of control variables and various research designs. I consider two alternative mechanisms for this association: whether financial reporting opacity inhibits the effectiveness of regulatory monitoring (regulatory unawareness) or whether regulators practice forbearance on opaque banks (regulatory forbearance). I find evidence consistent with the forbearance mechanism, but not with the unawareness mechanism. My findings contribute to the extant literature on bank opacity, regulatory forbearance, and the consequences of ...

New: Tax-Related Human Capital: Evidence from Employee Movements
Date Posted: Dec  10, 2018
Despite the human capital in corporate tax departments representing the average firm’s most direct and substantial investment in tax compliance and planning, our understanding of it is limited. We shed light on the determinants and consequences of tax-related human capital by examining employee movement between the tax departments of large U.S. corporations. We first show that deteriorations in firm tax performance, measured either by increases in cash effective tax rates (ETRs) or tax-related internal control weaknesses or restatements, are associated with an increased likelihood of tax department hiring. Second, we find that tax departments tend to hire from firms with similar characteristics (such as industry membership, size, and the extent of foreign operations), suggesting that tax-related human capital is highly specific in nature. Finally, we document that firms exhibit meaningful increases in tax avoidance when they hire from low ETR firms, and that this association varies ...

REVISION: The Reputational Costs of Tax Avoidance
Date Posted: Sep  28, 2017
We investigate whether firms and their top executives bear reputational costs from engaging in aggressive tax avoidance activities. Prior literature has posited that reputational costs partially explain why so many firms apparently forgo the benefits of tax avoidance, the so-called “under-sheltering puzzle.” We employ a database of 118 firms that were subject to public scrutiny for having engaged in tax shelters, representing the largest sample of publicly identified corporate tax shelters analyzed to date. We examine the reputational costs that prior research has shown that firms and managers face in cases of alleged misconduct: increased CEO and CFO turnover, auditor turnover, lost sales, increased advertising costs, and decreased media reputation. Across a battery of tests, we find little evidence that firms or their top executives bear significant reputational costs as a result of being accused of engaging in tax shelter activities. Moreover, we find no decrease in firms’ tax ...

REVISION: The Importance of the Internal Information Environment for Tax Avoidance
Date Posted: Sep  28, 2017
We show that firms’ ability to avoid taxes is affected by the quality of their internal information environment, with lower effective tax rates (ETRs) for firms that have high internal information quality. The effect of internal information quality on tax avoidance is stronger for firms in which information is likely to play a more important role. For example, firms with greater coordination needs because of a dispersed geographical presence benefit more from high internal information quality. Similarly, firms operating in a more uncertain environment benefit more from the quality of their internal information in helping them to reduce ETRs. In addition, we provide evidence that high internal information quality allows firms to achieve lower ETRs without increasing the risk of their tax strategies (as measured by ETR volatility). Overall, our study contributes to the literature on tax avoidance by providing evidence that the internal information environment of the firm is important ...

REVISION: The Effect of Corporate Taxation on Bank Transparency: Evidence from Loan Loss Provisions
Date Posted: Sep  28, 2017
We examine how the corporate tax system, through its treatment of loan losses, affects bank financial reporting choices. Our identification strategy exploits cross-country and intertemporal variation in corporate tax rates and the tax deductibility of loan loss provisions. Using an international sample of banks, we find that the loan loss provision is increasing in the corporate tax rate for countries that permit the tax deduction of general provisions. The effect is economically significant: when allowing general provision deductibility, a 1 percentage point increase in the corporate tax rate leads to an increase in provisions of approximately 4.9% of the sample average. Furthermore, we show that this effect is driven by the corporate tax system’s encouragement of timelier loan loss recognition: the extent to which future and current loan portfolio quality deteriorations are incorporated into the loan loss provision is increasing in the tax rate when general provisions are tax ...

REVISION: Bank Executive Overconfidence and Delayed Expected Loss Recognition
Date Posted: Oct  16, 2013
While prior work shows that delayed expected loan loss recognition is related to lending propensity (Beatty and Liao, 2011), bank risk (Bushman and Williams, 2011), and bank risk taking (Bushman and Williams, 2012), we provide evidence that executive overconfidence is a potential driver of delayed expected loan loss recognition. We find that overconfident bank CEOs and CFOs recognize lower loan loss provisions and incorporate current and future deterioration in nonperforming loans in their loan loss provisions less than other bank CEOs and CFOs. Our evidence of delayed expected loss recognition is driven primarily by CFOs, consistent with CFOs being closer to the financial reporting function than CEOs. The study is important because it demonstrates that manager characteristics can have meaningful economic consequences for financial institutions through the reporting of asset risk.